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Sound Media: References, soundtrack supplement and acknowledgements


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References

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Soundtrack

The soundtrack CD is not a professional audio production; it is a series of historical examples relating to the academic argument of this book. No attempt has been made to polish the sound; however, on some tracks the volume has been adjusted to avoid variations in level. No changes have been made in the continuity of the recordings, except to start and stop the re-recording process. This supplement lists the source for the track, the re-recording process made for this CD publication, and the copyright situation.

The following tracks were reproduced with kind permission. While every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and obtain permission, this has not been possible in all cases. Any omissions brought to our attention will be remedied in future editions.

Track 1: Marshall McLuhan: The Medium is the Massage, 1967 (1:42). Source: The LP The Medium is the Massage with Marshall McLuhan, Columbia CS9501 (1967). Written by Marshall McLuhan, Quentin Fiore and Jerome Agel, and produced by John Simon. The track was re-recorded from the original stereo LP to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Jerome Agel.

Track 2: Cleveland Orchestra: La Valse, 1991 (1:13). Source: The CD Ravel. Bolero. La Valse. Rapsodie Espagnole (1996). Decca 448-708-2 (DDD). The recording was made in 1991 and released in 1996. The track was re-recorded from the stereo CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Universal Music TV.

Track 3: London Symphony Orchestra: La Valse, 1970 (1:18). Source: The LP Ravel. Bolero. Rapsodie Espagnole. La Valse. Tzigane (1970). Philips 6-580-031. The track was rerecorded from the stereo LP to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Universal Music TV.

Track 4: Orchestre Lamoureux: La Valse, 1931 (1:02). Source: A 78 rpm release by Polydor, F 20120 (1931). The track was re-recorded by playing the 78 rpm on a wind-up gramophone, picking up the sound with a microphone, and recording it on a wav file. Copyright: it is believed that the recording has entered the public domain, and can be used within the fair use framework for educational purposes such as criticism, comment, teaching, scholarship, and research.

Track 5: Modem sounds (0:27). Source: An mp3 file acquired from http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/samplesViewSingle.php?id= 16475. The file was added by Jlew in March 2006. The track was rerecorded from mp3 to wav file. Copyright: If you are the owner of copyright in this material and do not consent to the use of this material within the Fair Use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection and proof of ownership.

Track 6: YouTube: Blunty3000, 2007 (1:06). Source: A video file acquired from www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXJbXFSLT58. Blunty3000 talks about headphones working as shields. The file was published onYouTube by Blunty3000 on 23 April 2007. The track was re-recorded from video file to wav file, and the visual feed was consequently lost. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Blunty3000.

Track 7: Acidplanet: God vs. the Internet, 2005 (0:48). Source: An mp3 file acquired from www.acidplanet.com/artist.asp?PID=652203&T=180823. The artist God vs. the Internet plays May the Circle be Unbroken (God vs. the Internet). The file was published on 13 October 2005.The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: If you are the owner of copyright in this material and do not consent to the use of this material within the Fair Use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection and proof of ownership.

Track 8: BBC Radio 4: Acoustic Shadows, 2004 (2:02). Source: An mp3 file acquired from www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/acousticshadows.shtml.The programme was produced by BBC journalist Robert Sandall, who presents the science of acoustic archeology with the archeologist Steve Waller. The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of the BBC.

Track 9: This Week in Tech: Podcast Expo, 2006 (2:31). Source: An mp3 file acquired from www.twit.tv/71.The host Leo Laporte talks to industry people at Podcast Expo at Ontario Convention Center, Los Angeles, on 2 October 2006. The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: If you are the owner of copyright in this material and do not consent to the use of this material within the Fair Use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection and proof of ownership.

Track 10: haltKarl: Almost Gills, 2007 and 2005 (1:51). Source: A wav file acquired from haltKarl. Both versions of Almost Gills (haltKarl) are unpublished. The tracks were in wav format from the outset, and no re-recording was necessary. Copyright: published with the kind permission of haltKarl.

Track 11: Autechre: Dael, 1995 (1:09). Source: The CD tri reptae (1995), on Warp warpcd38 (1995). Dael is composed by Autechre. The track was re-recorded from stereo CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission ofWarp Records.

Track 12: Portishead: Glory Box, 1994 (1:03). Source:The CD Dummy (1994), on Go! Discs/London 828553 (1994). Glory Box is composed by Barrow, Gibbons, Hayes and Utley. The track was re-recorded from stereo CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Universal Music TV

Track 13: 1010 WINS: Top of the Hour, 2001 (2:24). Source: a CD recording from the station’s audio archive, supplied by 1010 WINS editor Mark Mason. Lee Harris reads the news at 7 a.m. on 2 May 2001.The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of 1010 WINS/Infinity Broadcasting.

Track 14: Unknown artist: Get Mobilized, 2000 (1:00). Source: aired on the American radio station 1010 WINS in 2000, and recorded to magnetic cassette by Lars Nyre. The song is an advertisement for Mobil Oil. The track was rerecorded from cassette to wav file.

Track 15: 1010 WINS: Breaking news, 2001 (1:23). Source: a CD recording from the station’s audio archive, supplied by 1010 WINS editor Mark Mason. Lee Harris presents breaking news on 11 September 2001 and Joan Fleischer reports from the scene.The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of 1010 WINS/Infinity Broadcasting.

Track 16: 1010 WINS: The South Tower collapses, 2001 (2:16). Source: a CD recording from the station’s audio archive, supplied by 1010 WINS editor Mark Mason. Lee Harris talks with eyewitness Joan Fleischer on 11 September 2001. The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of 1010 WINS/Infinity Broadcasting.

Track 17: LBC London: Kick Ferrari with Rosemary, 2004 (3:05). Source: Live programme aired on DAB, and recorded to minidisc by Lars Nyre. ‘Nick Ferrari at Breakfast’ is broadcast every weekday from 7 to 9 a.m., and this particular show was aired on 24 June 2004. The track was re-recorded from mini-disc to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of LBC 97.3 FM, a company in the Chrysalis Radio Group.

Track 18: BBC Radio One: Sara Cox with Nicola and Rachel, 2001 (3:50). Source: Live programme distributed on streaming audio from www.bbc.co.uk/radio1, and recorded to minidisc by Lars Nyre.’The Breakfast Show with Sara Cox’ was aired on BBC Radio 1 on 24 October 2001.The track was re-recorded from minidisc to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of the BBC.

Track 19: WOR New York: Dr Joy Browne with Barney, 2002 (3:41). Source: Live programme distributed on streaming audio on www.wor710.com, and recorded to minidisc by Lars Nyre. The psychiatry show ‘Dr Joy Browne’ was aired on 710 WOR, New York, on 20 February 2002. The track was rerecorded from minidisc to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of WOR Radio HD.

Track 20: Residents: Never Known Questions, 1974 (1:20). Source: The stereo LP Not Available RR1174 (1978). The song Never Known Questions was composed by the Residents, and although it was recorded in 1974 it was first published in 1978.The track was re-recorded from stereo LP to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of the Cryptic Corporation.

Track 21: Sly and the Family Stone: If You Want Me to Stay, 1973 (1:26). Source:The stereo LP Fresh, Epic KE32134 (1973).The song Tf You Want Me to Stay is composed by Stewart. The track was re-recorded from stereo LP to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of SONY BMG Music Entertainment Norwav AS.
twice saved this sound media project from itself, and I am eternally grateful to him. Thanks also to the Department of Information Science and Media Studies at the University of Bergen for allocating funds that made it possible to check all the copyrights for the CD.

Track 22: Traffic: Giving to You, 1967 (1:15). Source: The stereo LP Mr Fantasy, United Artists UAS 6651 (1968). The song Giving to You was composed by Winwood, Capaldi,Wood and Mason. The track was re-recorded from stereo LP to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of Universal Music TV
Track 23: NASA: Neil Armstrong on the moon, 1969 (1:19). Source: An mp3 file acquired from the website http://161.115.184.211/teague/apollo/audio/.This was originally a live transmission by NASA, aired on 20 July 1969. The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: Published in accordance with the NASA History Division.

Track 24: BBC Radio One: Promo, 1967 (0:27). Source:The CD 75 Years of the BBC: A Celebration of BBC Radio, ZBBC 2038 (1997). This was a promotional element for the new station Radio 1, and it was aired on 30 September 1967. The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of the BBC.

Track 25: NBC: The Kraft Music Hall with Bing Crosby, 1943 (1:46). Source: an mp3 file from the Internet site www.old-time.com.This was originally a live transmission on AM radio aired on NBC on 30 December 1943. The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: It is believed that pre-1950 radio programmes fall under the Copyright Act of 1909, and therefore have entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 26: BBC: The Brains Trust, 1943 (1:06). Source: The CD 75 Years of the BBC: A Celebration of BBC Radio, ZBBC 2038 (1997). This was originally a live transmission aired on the BBC Home Service on 30 March 1943. ‘The Brains Trust’ panel included Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson), Dr C. E.M.Joad, Lt. Commander R.T. Gould, M.Jan Marsaryk and the Rt Hon. Lord Kennet. The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: published with the kind permission of the BBC.

Track 27: CBS: Breaking news, 1941 (1:34). Source: Acquired from the audio cassette Newsbreaks as They Happened (release date and serial number unknown). Thanks are due to Chris Swenson for making this tape available. This was originally a live news transmission on CBS on 7 December 1941. Copyright: It is believed that pre-1950 radio programmes fall under the Copyright Act of 1909, and therefore have entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 28: Swedish Radio (SR): Sports commentary, 1931 (1:05). Source: Acquired from the CD Klassiska idrottsreferat [Classic sports relays], appended to Dahlen (1999). This was originally a live transmission on Sveriges Radio [Swedish Radio Corporation] on 30 August 1931. The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: It is believed that pre-1950 radio programmes fall under the Copyright Act of 1909, and therefore have entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 29: Edith Piaf L’Accordeoniste, 1940 (1:09). Source: A 78 rpm release by Polydor, 524 669 (1940). The song L’Accordeoniste was composed by Michel Emer. The track was re-recorded by playing the 78 rpm on a wind-up gramophone, picking up the sound with a microphone, and recording it on a wav file. The lyrics in English translation were found at www.dailymotion.corn/video/ x2iz6n_edith-piaf-l-accordeomste-english/mnusic. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 30: Harry Brandelius: Spelmannen, 1938 (0:59). Source: A 78 rpm release by His Master’s Voice, ALP 3378 (1938). The song Spelmannen was composed by Agren/Andersson. The track was re-recorded by playing the 78 rpm on a wind-up gramophone, picking up the sound with a microphone, and recording it on a wav file. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 31: Charles Panzera: Chanson triste, 1931 (1:03). Source: A 78 rpm release by Victor Red Seal, 1892 (1931). Charles Panzera sings Chanson triste (Lahor/ Duparc) with Magdaleine Panzera-Baillot accompanying on piano. The track was re-recorded by playing the 78 rpm on a wind-up gramophone, picking up the sound with a microphone, and recording it on a wav file. English language lyrics by Richard Stokes, found at httpT/ww^w.recmusic.org/heder/geutext.hmil? Textld=9772. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the pubhc domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not pubhc domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 32: Tuning in the AM spectrum (1:01). This is a montage of electronic and atmospheric noises made by Lars Nyre and KjetilVikene in 2002. Five different noises were generated on a mono Radionette receiver, recorded to wav file, and superimposed on each other in SoundForge. The tracks were in wav format from the outset, and no re-recording was necessary. Notice that no presumption of historical accuracy is made. Copyright: published with the permission of Lars Nyre and KjetilVikene.

Track 33: Bessie Smith: St Louis Blues, 1925 (1:37). Source:The CD Legends of the Blues, Volume 1, CBS 01-467245-10 (1990). The song was composed by W C. Handy. The track was re-recorded from CD to wav file. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 34: Ellen Gulbranson: Ack Wärmeland du skoua, 1914 (1:09). Source: A 78 rpm release by the International Record Collector’s Club, IRCC no. 222-B (no release date given). The track was re-recorded by playing the 78 rpm on a 1904 Victrola gramophone, picking up the sound with a microphone, and recording it on a wav file. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the pubhc domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not pubhc domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 35: Enrico Caruso: 77 Le Siciliana, 1901 (1:08). Source: The LP 20 Great Tenors in Recording History,Tap Records,T-303 (no release date given). Enrico Caruso made this recording backstage at the New York Metropolitan in 1901. The track was re-recorded from LP to wav file. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.

Track 36: Thomas Edison with Arthur Sullivan, 1888 (1:28). Source: An mp3 file acquired from http://math.boisestate.edu/gas/other_sulhvan/hmil/mstoric.html. This was originally recorded on a cylinder phonograph on 5 October 1888. The track was re-recorded from mp3 file to wav file. Copyright: It is believed that this recording has entered the public domain. If anyone has written proof that any selections are not public domain, and does not consent to the use of this material within the fair use framework, please contact the author forthwith with a written objection.
 

Acknowledgements

If you got ears, you gotta listen.

(Captain Beefheart, 1980)

This book started as the doctoral thesis ‘Fidelity Matters: Sound Realism in the 20th Century’ (2003). Professor Anders Johansen at the Department of Information Science and Media Studies in Bergen supervised my studies of auditory perception and the mass media, not just for the doctoral thesis but also for preliminary studies as a bachelor and master student. What is good in this book I owe to his creative scepticism, and what is poor I owe to my not being able to overcome it.

The works of the phenomenologist and technology philosopher Don Ihde have inspired me since I first picked up Listening and Voice in the mid-1990s. In 2000 I was a visiting scholar and regular attendant at the Technoscience Research Seminar on Long Island, New York. Here I learnt to appreciate the links between American philosophy of technology and media studies, and this helped me to vindicate Marshall McLuhan as a serious scholar of the media.

In 2004 I was a visiting scholar at the Department of Media Arts at Royal Holloway College in London, and my conversations with John Ellis about the nature of broadcasting were a great inspiration. I also want to thank Colin Sparks, who directed the work in the European research network COST A20 ‘The Impact of the Internet on the Mass Media in Europe’, and Paddy Scannell, who headed the commission that evaluated my doctoral thesis in 2003.1 am grateful for the personal kindnesses they have showed me, and the intellectual vigour of their different approaches to media studies.

I am in great debt to the members of the research network Digital Radio Cultures in Europe (www.drace.org) for extended discussions and collaborative work on a range of issues relevant to this book. Thanks to Marko Ala-Fossi, Markus Appel, Alexandras Baltzis, Oliver Hahn, David Hendy Henrik Hargitai, Per Jauert, Stephen Lax, Brian O’Neill, Susana Santos, Helen Shaw, Jon Peder Vestad and Nada Zgrabljic.

Thanks to Volda University College for a generous fund to pay the copyright fees for the CD for the Routledge edition. Chief engineer Sverre Liestøl has twice saved this sound media project from itself, and I am eternally grateful to him. Thanks also to the Department of Information Science and Media Studies at the University of Bergen for allocating funds that made it possible to check all the copyrights for the CD.

Since 2003 I have worked closely with professor Barbara Gentikow in the Cultural Techniques project, and I want to thank her for a very productive collaboration, and for allowing me to spend a lot of time writing this book while I was employed on her project. Thanks also to Hallvard Moe for being such a good reader. Atle Skorstad made all the drawings for the book, and Sigmund Elias Holm administered the copyright clearance for the CD. I am grateful to them for doing such good work.

Kjetil Vikene has been a fast friend in conversation and computerization since the mid-1990s, and his haltKarl project has become an integral part of the musical arguments in this book. Linda Eide has been my radio companion since the 1980s and a co-writer of texts about sound in the media since the early 2000s. Whole arguments of this book are developed in dialogue with her.

This book is dedicated to my family – Barbara, Nils, Isak and Agnes – whom I love. Without their noisy influence I could not have worked with this material for ten years.